Le diagnostic de performance énergétique

L'affichage du diagnostic de performance énergétique (DPE) va, en 2011, devenir obligatoire sur les annonces immobilières, aussi bien pour la vente que pour la location. Il est donc grand temps d'être incollable sur ce sujet !

Vie saine et zen - Le diagnostic de performance énergétique

Pour ne plus se ruiner en facture de gaz ou d'électricité, mais surtout pour ne plus avoir de mauvaises surprises lors de l'emménagement dans un nouveau logement, ce diagnostic est devenu incontournable.
Aujourd'hui, la moitié des logements français sont classés dans les deux plus mauvaises catégories, dont 10 % avec la lettre G tout en bas de l'échelle. Revenons sur ce DPE.

Le DPE, qu'est-ce que c'est ?
Le diagnostic de performance énergétique permet à un acheteur ou à un locataire d'estimer la consommation d'énergie d'un logement et les émissions de gaz à effet de serre de ce dernier.

Il prend en compte des informations telles que l'isolation et la ventilation d'un logement, déterminantes pour estimer la consommation annuelle d’énergie et son coût. Ensuite, il permet d'évaluer les travaux à réaliser pour améliorer la performance énergétique du logement.

Est-ce que c'est obligatoire ?
En cas de vente et en cas de signature d'un bail de location, oui.

Depuis 2005, on peut effectuer un "dossier de diagnostic technique" qui englobe les constats relatifs à l'amiante, au plomb, aux termites, aux risques naturels et technologiques, à la performance énergétique et aux installations intérieures de gaz et d'électricité.

Depuis 2006, dans le cas d'une vente immobilière, ce dossier de diagnostic technique, fourni par le vendeur, doit impérativement être annexé à la promesse de vente.

Depuis 2008, pour une location, il est obligatoire de joindre à la conclusion de tout bail le dossier de diagnostic de performance énergétique (DPE) ainsi que le constat de risque d'exposition au plomb et celui des risques naturels et technologiques du logement.

À compter de 2011, le DPE devra figurer sur les annonces immobilières, de location comme de vente.

Comment s'effectue un DPE ?
Le diagnostic de performance énergétique s'évalue selon :
- la nature de la construction des murs : s'ils sont en brique, en terre cuite, en parpaing, isolés ou non ;
- la toiture dans le cas d'une maison ou l'épaisseur du plafond pour un appartement ;
- les fenêtres (simple, double vitrage, bois, alu, PVC) ;
- le plancher bas : s'il est sur terre, sur vide sanitaire ou sur cave chauffée ou non chauffée ;
- le système de chauffage et de production d'eau chaude sanitaire (ECS) : chaudière gaz, pétrole, poêle de pétrole, cheminée, et son rendement.

Pour les logements datant d'avant 1948 ou les appartements chauffés collectivement, le DPE s’effectue seulement à partir des factures énergétiques des 3 dernières années.

Le bilan se présente sous forme d'une échelle graduée en 7 lettres, la lettre A pour la meilleure performance et la lettre G pour les biens les plus énergivores.

Qui effectue ce diagnostic et combien ça coûte ?
Le site Diagnostic de Performance énergétique répertorie de nombreux diagnostiqueurs selon le lieu de l’expertise. Sinon, il est possible de se renseigner auprès de sa mairie ou bien du professionnel auquel est confiée la mise en vente ou la location du bien.

À la charge du propriétaire, le prix du diagnostic de performance énergétique n'est pas réglementé et varie en général entre 150 et 200 € en moyenne. Il est préférable de demander plusieurs devis.

En cas de vente, son coût incombe au vendeur, en cas de construction au maître d'ouvrage et en cas de location au propriétaire bailleur. La durée de validité d'un DPE est de 10 ans.

Quelles conclusions tirer de ce diagnostic ?
Rien n'oblige à réaliser les travaux d'amélioration conseillés, mais le DPE permet de fixer des performances à respecter pour diminuer les besoins en énergie d'un logement.
En effectuant des travaux d’isolation, en s'équipant de systèmes plus efficaces pour chauffer ou ventiler, en utilisant les énergies renouvelables et en adoptant en plus un comportement économe, on gagne en confort, on diminue ses dépenses et on augmente la valeur marchande du bien !

Aujourd'hui, seuls 19 % des propriétaires se lancent dans les aménagements préconisés par le diagnostic.
Mais une fois que ce DPE sera affiché sur les annonces immobilières, il devrait devenir un argument de vente. Et à l'avenir, selon les experts, les biens ayant un mauvais bilan énergétique devraient souffrir d'une décote significative.

70 %

de la consommation d'énergie d'un logement concerne le chauffage


13 %

de la consommation d'énergie d'un logement concerne l’éclairage


10 %

de la consommation d'énergie d'un logement concerne l’eau chaude





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